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What is SOA?
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) represents a popular architectural paradigm for applications, with Web Services as probably the most visible way of achieving an SOA . Web Services implement capabilities that are available to other applications (or even other Web Services) via industry standard network and application interfaces and protocols. SOA advocates an approach in which a software component provides its functionality as a service that can be leveraged by other software components. Components (or services) represent reusable software building blocks.
SOA allows the integration of existing systems, applications and users into a flexible architecture that can easily accommodate changing needs. Integrated design, reuse of existing IT investments and above all, industry standards are the elements needed to create a robust SOA.
As enterprises slowly emerge from the mad rush of cost reduction into a more stable period of cost management, many of them find themselves in unfamiliar territory. Prior to the economic slow down, most firms understood the options they had for IT investment. Many embarked on major package implementations (e.g., Siebel, Peoplesoft and so on), while others built on the legacy systems they have trusted for years. Either way, most firms recognized the return promised and made the investment. Today, the appetite for such large investment is gone.
However, enterprises still need to make forward progress and keep ahead of the competition. SOA (and typically Web Services as a concrete implementation of those principles) make this possible. The result is dramatic improvements in collaboration between users, applications and technology components, generating significant value for any business creating competitive advantage.
Conventional distributed system infrastructures (middleware) are not sufficient for these cross-organizational exchanges. For instance:
- You would need agreement between the parties involved on the middleware platform.
- There is an implicit (and sometimes explicit) lack of trust between the parties involved.
- Business data is confidential and should only to be seen by the intended recipient.
- Many assumptions of conventional middleware are invalid in cross-organizational interactions. Transactions, for instance, last longer - possibly for hours or days so conventional transaction protocols such as two phase commit are not applicable.
So, in B2B exchanges the lack of standardization across middleware platforms makes point-to-point solutions costly to realize in practice. The Internet alleviated some of these problems by providing standard interaction protocols (HTTP) and data formats (XML) but by themselves these standards are not enough to support application integration. They don't define interface definition languages, name and directory services, transaction protocols, etc,. It is the gap between what the Web provides and what application integration requires that Web services are trying to fill.
The problem space can be categorized by past IT investments in the area of eProcurement, eSourcing, Supply Chain Management, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Internet computing in general. All of these investments were made in a silo. Along with the incremental growth in these systems to meet short-term (tactical) requirements, the decisions made in this space hurt the long-term viability of the applications and infrastructure.
The three key drivers for implementing an SOA approach are:
- Cost Reduction: Achieved by the ways services talk to each other. The direct cost effect is delivered through enhanced operations productivity, effective sourcing options, and a significantly enhanced ability to shift ongoing costs to a variable model.
- Delivering IT solutions faster and smarter: A standards based approach will allow organizations to connect and share information and business processes much faster and easier than before. IT delivery productivity is markedly improved through simplification of the developer�s role by providing standard frameworks and interfaces. Delivery timescales have been drastically reduced by easing the integration load of individual functionality, and applying accelerated delivery techniques within the environment.
- Maximizing return on investment: Web Services opens the way for new business opportunities by enabling new business models. Web Services present the ability to measure value and discrete return much differently than traditional functional-benefit methods. Typical Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) models do not take into account the lifetime value generated by historical investment. This cost centric view destroys many opportunities to exploit these past investments and most enterprises end up building redundancy into their architecture, not out of necessity, but of perceived need. These same organizations focus the value proposition of their IT investment on a portfolio of applications, balanced by the overhead of infrastructure. An approach based on Web Services takes into account the lifetime contribution of legacy IT investment and promotes an evolution of these investments rather than a planned replacement.
SOA will allow for combining existing functions with new development efforts, allowing the creation of composite applications. Leveraging what works lowers the risks in software development projects. By reusing existing functions, it leads to faster deliverables and better delivery quality.
Loose coupling helps preserve the future by allowing parts to change at their own pace without the risks linked to costly migrations using monolithic approaches. SOA allows business users to focus on business problems at hand without worrying about technical constraints. For the individuals who develop solutions, SOA helps in the following manner:
- Business analysts focus on higher order responsibilities in the development lifecycle while increasing their own knowledge of the business domain.
- Separating functionality into component-based services that can be tackled by multiple teams enables parallel development.
- Quality assurance and unit testing become more efficient; errors can be detected earlier in the development lifecycle.
- Development teams can deviate from initial requirements without incurring additional risk.
- Components within architecture can aid in becoming reusable assets in order to avoid reinventing the wheel.
- Functional decomposition of services and their underlying components with respect to the business process helps preserve the flexibility, future maintainability and eases integration efforts.
- Security rules are implemented at the service level and can solve many security considerations within the enterprise.
If you want to know more on SOA, then you should check out the SOA Basics page. You may also want to read about SOA and EOA (Event Oriented Architectures). You can also see how JBossESB relates to standards in this area.